HEART FAILURE, DEPRESSION AND EXERCISE
Introduction: Patients with heart failure have high rates of physical disability, based on self-reported difficulty in performing daily living activities. Depression is also a disease entity that has a high co-morbidity in combination with heart failure. Beyond the usual medical care of heart failure, there is a plethora of research on the contribution of exercise to cardiovascular parameters and to the muscular system of patients with heart failure, its effect on their quality of life and relief of depression symptoms.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the positive effect of exercise on patients with heart failure experiencing depression.
Methodology: The study material consisted of articles on the topic, found in Greek and international databases such as: Google Scholar, Mednet, Pubmed, Medline and the Hellenic Academic Libraries Association (HEAL-Link), using the appropriate keywords: heart failure, depression, exercise programs.
Results: Depression affects the clinical course and prognosis of patients with heart failure. The coexistence of depression and chronic heart failure leads to an increase in mortality. The benefits of exercise, therefore, in patients with heart failure and depression have a positive impact on the patients' quality of life by contributing to increasing their functional status, reducing their re-admissions to the hospital and relieving the symptoms of depression.
Conclusions: The high incidence of depression in patients with chronic heart failure requires measures to prevent it, such as exercise. Health professionals need to help patients understand their condition and follow therapeutic guidelines, as well as therapeutic exercise, which can improve their lifestyle and behavior, and help them prevent depression symptoms and promote their quality of life.
Adamopoulos S, Parissis J, Kroupis C, et al (2001) Physical training reduces peripheralmarkers of inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 22:791-7
Adams BJ, Carr JG, Ozonoff A, et al (2008) Effect of exercise training in supervised cardiacrehabilitation programs on prognostic variables from the exercise tolerance test. Am JCardiol, 101:1403-7
Christodoulou G.N. Depression. In: G.N. Christodoulou et al (2004) Psychiatry, Volume I, Beta Publications, Athens, 313-348
European Society of Cardiology (2012) ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronicheart failure. Eur Heart J, 33: 1787–1847
Faris R, Purcell H, Henein MY, Coats AJS.(2002) Clinical depression is common and significantly associatedwith reduced survival in patients with non-ischaemic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail, 4 :541-51
Georgantas A, Dimopoulos S, Tasoulis A, Karatzanos E, Pantsios C, Agapitou V,Ntalianis A, Roditis P, Terrovitis J, Nanas S.(2014) Beneficial effects of combined exercise training on early recovery cardiopulmonary exercise testing indices in patients withchronic heart failure. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 34 (6) :378-385
Giannuzzi P, Temporelli PL, Corra U, et al (2003) Antiremodeling effect of long-term exercisetraining in patients with stable chronic heart failure: results of the Exercise in Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Chronic Heart Failure (ELVD-CHF) Trial. Circulation, 108:554-9
Gottlieb SS, Kop WJ, Ellis SJ, Binkley P, Howlett J, O'Connor C, et al (2009) Relation of depression toseverity of illness in heart failure (from Heart Failure and a Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes ofExercise Training [HF-ACTION]). Am J Cardiol, 1;103(9):1285-9
Jiang W, Kuchibhatla M, Clary GL, Cuffe MS, Christopher EJ, Alexander JD, et al. (2007) Relationshipbetween depressive symptoms and long-term mortality in patients with heart failure. Am Heart J, 154(1):102-8
Jiang W, Kuchibhatla M, Cuffe MS, Christopher EJ, Alexander JD, Clary GL, et al. (2004) Prognostic value ofanxiety and depression in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation, 30;110(22):3452-6
Jing W, Kuchibhatla M, Cuffc MS, et al. (2004) Prognostic value of anxiety and depression in patients withchronic heart failure. Circulation, 110: 3452-6
Johansson P, Dahlström U, Broström A. (2006) The measurement and prevalence of depression in patientswith chronic heart failure. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs, 21(1):28-36
Middleton S, Middleton PG. "Assessment, investigations, skills, techniques andmanagement". In J. Pryor & A. Prasad (Eds.)(2002) "Physiotherapy for respiratory andcardiac problems". London: Churchill Livingstone
Panagopoulou et al (2013) NTproBNP: an important biomarker in cardiac diseases. Curr Top Med Chem, 13 (2) :82-94
Ponikowski, P. et al. (2016). ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acuteand chronic heart failure. The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute andchronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)
Raven, Wasserman, Squires, Murray (2015) Physiology of Exercise. Textbook, Lagos Dimitrios
Rumsfeld JS, Jones PG, Whooley MA, et al (2005) Depression predicts mortality and hospitalization in patients with myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure. Am Heart J, 150: 961-7
Sherwood L. (2013). Human Physiology: FromCells to Systems. Cengage Learning
Tabet J. Y., Meurin P., Driss A. B., Weber H., Renaud N., Grosdemouge A., BeauvaisF., Solal A. C. (2009) Benefits of exercise training in chronic heart failure. Archives of Cardiovascular Disease, 102, 721 - 730
The CONSENSUS Trial Study Group (1987) Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heartfailure: results of the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study. N Engl J Med, 316:1429–1435