MHGCJ 2020
Mental Health: Global Challenges Journal
https://mhgcj.org ISSN 2612-2138
Types of parent-child relationship and indicators of
neuropsychological development of preschool
children
Ekaterina Ermolova, Olga Shamshikova
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Abstract
Introduction: During the last 20 years, in Russia and in many EU countries, there has been
significant change in the global social and cultural situation. Individualistic tendencies rose
sharply and there is a widespread destruction of the sense of belonging. In this regard, the type
of parent-child relationship is changing, which is one of the key dimension of the
neuropsychological development of children. There is a logical question for psychologists,
teachers and parents, what types of parent-child relationships are constructive, that is, they
favor normal neuropsychological development of children of preschool age (6-7 years).
Purpose: The purpose of the present work is to investigate correlation between types of parent-
child relationships and indicators of neuropsychological development of children, as well as
identifying constructive types of parent-child relationships for the normal neuropsychological
development of children.
Methodology: The study was conducted within the framework of the basic screening program
(pre-school stage). The Order of the Ministry of health of the Russian Federation of 03.07.2000
241 On approval of the Medical card of the child for educational institutions (together with the
Instruction on the procedure of an accounting form 026/u-2000 (The Medical card of the
child for educational institutions of preschool, primary, basic, secondary (complete) general
education, primary and secondary vocational education, orphanages and boarding schools).
Determination of the correspondence of neuropsychological development to the child's age
was carried out according to the following indicators: thinking and speech; attention and
memory; positive emotions and social contacts; sensorimotor development. Types of parental
relationship was studied using the methodology of the Questionnaire “Parental relationship”
(QPR), A.Y. Varga, V.V. Stolin. The sample was formed from 94 respondents who were screened
in the framework of the basic screening program (preschool stage) at the health Center of the
MC “Gubernia” in Novosibirsk. The study of determination of the type of parent-child relationship
of 47 respondents (mothers) was conducted and the neuropsychic development of 47 children
of preschool age in the families (6-7 years) was evaluated.
Results and Discussion: The data obtained indicate that different types of parent-child
relationship such as “Cooperation” and “Symbiosis” positively interrelated with different indicators
(attention and memory; the development of positive emotions and the presence of significant
experiences in children) of the child's neuropsychological development. Such types of parent-
child relationship as “Infantilism” and “Acceptance-rejection” negatively interrelated with such
indicators of child's neuropsychological development as attention and memory; thinking,
speech and positive emotions and social contacts.
Conclusion: Children in groups with a more “constructive” parental relationship type have
higher cognitive scores and fewer behavioral problems. The materials of the study can be used
by child psychologists in the evaluation of neuropsychological development of the child. The
Bank of diagnostic techniques that quickly allow diagnosing the state of neuropsychic
development of the child in relation to the type of parental relations and thereby increasing the
effectiveness of its correction through work with parents is of practical importance
MHGCJ 2020
Mental Health: Global Challenges Journal
https://mhgcj.org ISSN 2612-2138
Keywords
Mental health, parent-child relations; neuropsychic development; preschool age; indicators of
development.
Submitted for publication: 3
July 2020
Received: 3 July 2020
Accepted for publication: 20
October 2020
Introduction
“Each cultural and historical epoch gives rise
to a certain set of life dominants which human
community perceives as a norm, a way of life
and a dominating world outlook. The modern era
in this respect is a crisis one” (Shamshikova et al,
2011. p. 17). The crisis (socio-economic)
manifests itself as a violation of the normal
functioning of society as a result of a sharp
aggravation of social contradictions and creating
a threat to the resilience of both society and the
individual in the environment (with the most
vulnerable is the personality of a child of
preschool age).
Over the past 20 years, there has been a
sharp change in the system of value orientations,
increased individualistic trends, there is a
widespread destruction of a sense of belonging;
new systems of interaction appear and space
“without borders expands”. In this regard, there is
an urgent question of studying a “new social
reality”, which changes the content of growing up
(development and socialization) of a child.
“Specific data collected by scientists show that
the change of historical situation has stimulated
the qualitative mental, psychological and
personality changes of a contemporary child”
(Feldstein, 2011, p. 385).
The irrepressible penetration of modern means
of communication and information technologies
into the world of childhood; the emergence of
new inflated social expectations and
requirements in relation to the intellectual skills of
a child; visible predominance of acceleration
over amplification (enrichment of development);
the change in the content and form of
education at different stages of the educational
process (Obukhova & Kotlyar, 2011) demand
today the need for in-depth study of the normal
(potential) neuropsychological development
(NPD) of a child. “... this potential of preschool
childhood could be realized, as was noted by
A.V. Zaporozhets, only by taking into account the
age-related psychophysiological characteristics
and psychological specificity of this childhood
stage” (Bolshunova & Ermolova, 2016, p. 377).
First, such consideration of the specifics of
age should be carried out by parents in the
organization of the system of activity of the child,
its development and education. This requires that
parents have certain role competencies and
have sufficient motivation to maintain adequate
parent-child relationships (Grusec & Danyliuk,
2019). However, modern parents are increasingly
exhibiting “low level of parental motivation, poor
command of communication skills in parents in
regard with children, poor organization of child's
leisure and daily schedule” (Feldstein, 2011, p.
386). Such parental characteristics are reflected
in different types of parental relationship (which is
the basis of the social situation of development)
and determine specific configurations of the
development of neuropsychic processes and
personal formations of preschool children.
Taking into account the relevance of the
revealed contradictions, we consider it important
in the current socio-cultural conditions to study
the normal neuropsychological development of
the child and the causes of abnormalities in the
neuropsychic development of children, where
one of the determining role of the functioning of
the personality of a preschooler is the type of
parent-child relations.
Purpose
The purpose of the present work is to
investigate correlation between types of parent-
child relationships and indicators of
neuropsychological development of children, as
well as identifying constructive types of parent-
child relationships for the normal
neuropsychological development of children.
MHGCJ 2020
Mental Health: Global Challenges Journal
https://mhgcj.org ISSN 2612-2138
Design/Methodology/Approach
We have formed a set of complementary
empirical methods: questionnaires, testing (blank
and projective), mathematical and statistical
methods of data processing. The study was
conducted within the framework of the basic
screening program (pre-school stage). The Order
of the Ministry of health of the Russian Federation
of 03.07.2000 241 On approval of the
Medical card of the child for educational
institutions (together with the Instruction on the
procedure of an accounting form 026/u-2000
(The Medical card of the child for educational
institutions of preschool, primary, basic,
secondary (complete) general education,
primary and secondary vocational education,
orphanages and boarding schools) (2000).
Determination of the correspondence of
neuropsychological development to the child's
age was carried out according to the following
indicators: thinking and speech; attention and
memory; positive emotions and social contacts;
sensorimotor development.
The following methods were used for
diagnostic purposes:
1) The Questionnaire “Parental relationship”
(QPR), A.Y. Varga, V.V. Stolin (1982) (DYa
Raygorodsky, 1998); 2) The Orientation test of
school maturity of Core-Yerseke, which is a
modification of the test of A. Kern (1978); 3)
Methods of learning ten words by A.R. Luria
(1973); 4) Methods of “Nelepitsa (Nonsense)”, the
author is S.R. Nemov (1986); 5) The Interview “A
Magic world” , the author is D.V. Lubowski (1982);
6) The Test “Draw a family”, the authors are V. Huls
(1952), L. Corman (1964) A. I. Zakharova (1982)
and others (I. Kniginoy, 1998). When analyzing the
results of the study, statistical data processing
methods were used: percentage distribution of
the trait and the correlation analysis
(nonparametric rs-Spearman criterion).
The sample was formed from 94 respondents
who were screened in the framework of the basic
screening program (preschool stage) at the
health Center of the MC “Gubernia” in
Novosibirsk. The study of determination of the
type of parent-child relationship of 47
respondents (mothers) was conducted and the
neuropsychic development of 47 children of
preschool age in the families (6-7 years) was
evaluated.
Results
With the help of the Bank of diagnostic tools
formed by us, diagnostics of preschool children
and their parents (only mothers took part in
research) was consistently by all methods carried
out. We received the following results:
- in terms of intellectual and sensorimotor
development screened preschoolers were
divided into three groups: ready for school 60%
(28 children), the average level of readiness
36% (17 children) and 4% of cases (2 children)
require additional research to obtain more
objective data;
- by indicators of thinking and speech: high
level is revealed at 23% of cases (11 children),
average level 68% of cases (32 children), at 9%
of cases (4 children) low;
- according to the indicators of attention and
memory: high level of development was
revealed at 23% of the screened (11 children),
the average level 68% (31 children), low level
was demonstrated by 9% of children (5 children);
- in terms of the degree of manifestation of
positive emotions and social contacts: high
degree is observed at 29% (14 children), an
average - 60% (28 people), low at 11% of
cases (five children);
- in terms of the level of severity of needs,
strong emotions at the screened children: highly
formed at 21% (10 children), medium 60% (28
children), low 19% of cases (9 children).
In the study of the type of parental relationship
(PR), it was found that in terms of the scale
“Acceptance rejection” (reflects the integral
emotional attitude to the child) refers to 29% of
the screened parents (14 people), to the PR
“Cooperation” 8% (4 parents), “Symbiosis” 4%
(2 parents), “Authoritarian hypersocialization” 8%
(4 parents), “Infantilism” was detected in 12% of
cases (6 parents). In 20% of cases, the subjects
were found to have a combination of types of PR
scales “Acceptance rejection and Infantilism”
and “Cooperation and Symbiosis”.
Thus, the most common types of PR were: a
combination of scales: “Acceptance rejection”
and “Infantilism” 20%; “Cooperation” and
“Symbiosis” 20% and “Acceptance rejection”
28%.
Next, we checked the relations between the
indicators of neuropsychic development of
children (according to the scales of
questionnaires) and the type of parent-child
relationship to the child. The results of the
correlation analysis by indicators of
neuropsychological development and scales of
parental relationship showed the following: such
types of parent-child relations as “Cooperation
and “Symbiosis” directly correlate with indicators
of neuropsychological development: attention
and memory (p = 0, 001), positive emotions (p =
0, 001), strong emotions (p = 0, 04); in addition to
this type of PR “Symbiosis” has a negative
relationship with the indicator of intellectual and
MHGCJ 2020
Mental Health: Global Challenges Journal
https://mhgcj.org ISSN 2612-2138
sensorimotor development (p = 0, 021). The type
of parent-child relations “Acceptance-rejection”
and “Infantilism” has an inverse relationship with
the indicator of positive emotions (p = 0, 004), as
well as the type «Infantilism» has an inverse
relationship with the indicators of attention and
memory (p = 0, 01), strong emotions (p = 0,
008), and the